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maize pests and diseases in kenya

Constraints for maize production include drought, low soil fertility, pests and diseases. This can lead to reduced growth. Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (Kalro) has developed two maize varieties that are resistant to the viral Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease and fall army worm. Weeds can also cause further problems by harbouring pests and diseases, interfering with harvest operations, and increasing costs of cleaning and drying the crop produce. Foliar (leaf) and stalk/ear rot diseases and stem-borers cause great losses in maize production in the humid transitional and high tropics of Kenya. Pests, weeds and disease in maize crops can severely reduce yield and quality. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Sudan grass (Sorghum vulgare sudanese) are good trap crops for stem borers. (2) Grasshoppers: They eat up the leaves and other soft vegetative parts of the plant. Weeds are undesirable plants growing within a crop and they compete for resources such as nutrients, water and light. They have found to be efficient biological control agents against two major maize pests: theCotesia typhae to control the maize stemborer, Sesamia nonagrioides, which has invaded You can spray the plant with Dimethoate etc, Spray Bestox 10 EC when soils are moist. Their feeding inside the stems causes the plant to wither and sometimes die. SIMON MAINA/AFP via Getty Images Estimates in 2017 put potential losses in maize production in Africa to this pest … Dusts – Actellic Super, Sumicombi, Skana Super grain dust, Spintor Dust, Super Malper dust at a rate of 50 g per 90Kg bag. Pests, weeds and disease in maize crops can severely reduce yield and quality. Desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum) when planted in between maize rows keep the stem borer moths away. This is the time to treat - before the larvae move on into the stem. Biopesticides in Kenya: Bio-pesticide: Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bio-fumigation: Copper fungicides in Kenya: ... Pests and Diseases; Pests and Diseases. The grains are used in the manufacture of com oil and animal feeds hence it is a vital raw material for industrialization. You can also apply FASTAC, Spray with Dimethoate , Malathion, Karate. Seedcorn maggot: The maggot bore into the seeds and seedlings and may result in seedling death. Anthracnose. Both grasses attract stem borer predators such as ants, earwigs, and spiders. Wireworms: Wireworm feeds at the base of the young plants.It causes stunted growth and death of young plants. The maize lethal necrosis (MLN) screening facility at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Naivasha in Kenya. Constraints for maize production in Kenya include drought, low soil fertility, pests and diseases. ... Smart maize variety that defends itself against pests. The misdirection of efforts due to poor research done with obsolete technology reduces the potential productivity-boost that could take place in Kenya. Stored-Product On-Farm Evaluation of Hermetic Technology Against Maize Storage Pests in Kenya Paddy Likhayo,1,2,3 Anani Y. Bruce,4 Kimondo Mutambuki,1 Tadele Tefera,5 and Jones Mueke2 1Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (KALRO), PO Box 14733 - 00800, Nairobi, Kenya (paddy.likhayo@kalro.org; mutambukikimo@yahoo.com), 2Kenyatta University (KU), Department of … The maize aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis is one of the most serious pests of maize crop in Bangladesh. Improved cassava pest control tool. Syngenta’s specialty crops business comprises a large and diverse group of high-value crops grown around the world. Stem/stalk borers are the most important insect pests of maize in Kenya. The efforts have saved 17 percent of seed initially lost to the disease that led to maize deficit in Kenya, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda. Weeds can also cause further problems by harbouring pests and diseases, interfering with harvest operations, and increasing costs of cleaning and drying the crop produce. Individuals can further contract diseases and bacterial infections from some of this pests even without physical contact. A diseased Maize Plant Image courtesy of fwi.co.uk Pests. New guide to help tackle papaya mealybug. ... African cassava mosaic... African maize stalkborer. There are also diseases such as leaf blights, rusts, and stem and root rots. Cabbage looper. Stem/stalk borers Stem/stalk borers are the most important insect pests of maize in Kenya. Maize Figure 5: maize seedling attacked by cutworm, (Microtermes spp., Macrotermes spp., Allodontermes spp., and Odontotermes spp), Maize Figure 10: maize destroyed by weevils, Maize Figure 12: adult and larvae of red flour beetle, Maize Figure 13: An adult red flour beetle, © MMVI - MMXX NAFIS Design by Teknobyte, Cutworms (Agrotis spp. Maize is also a very important feed for livestock. Understand the kind of pest that cause damage to the crops The attack starts in the field where the female lays eggs in a slight hollow on the maize seed. Termites begin to attack the roots and stems about three months after planting, and eventually cover with tunnels built of soil. Control a Spray with insecticides like vetox 85, and practice crop rotation. Blister beetle. Maize crop production in Kenya has faced a lot of challenges over the years especially in recent times. In Kenya, maize is produced in both small and large farms. and other species), ASDSP II Bilateral Review Mission Field Visits to Marsabit and Embu Counties, Service Providers challenged to develop Commercial Entrepreneurs in Siaya County, Sparrow mango wine manufactured in Siaya County, Smart Weather Community platform (m-SWECO), Africa Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF), AF-MIP (Agriculture and Food Market information portal), Agricultural Information Resource Centre (AIRC), Agricultural Marketing Information Systems, National Horticulture Market information System (NaHMIS), Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (KALRO), Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Authority (AFFA), Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, SIANI- Swedish International Agricultural Network Initiative, Agricultural Sector Development Support Programme (ASDSP), Government of Kenya (GOK) Information site, Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA), Agricultural Commodities Market Information. • Damage is often most prevalent along field edges and nearby wooded areas, but can extend throughout a ,large field. Most of the maize crop is however produced on small scale farms. Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (Kalro) has developed two maize varieties that are resistant to the viral Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease and fall army worm. Control Measures for Downy Mildew Diseases. SINCE 1856 This how to guide on pests, diseases and weed management will enable you to. Without weed control, crop yields can be significantly reduced. Stalk borers, rootworms, and armyworms are all common corn pests. Scientists at the Nairobi-based International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (Icipe) have discovered ‘smart’ maize varieties that defend themselves from the destructive stemborer by summoning the natural enemies of the pest. Deccan wingless grasshopper. It is processed in industries to produce oil and starch. • The symptoms that immediately catch the eye are missing or damaged kernels on the cobs. For maize, threatening organisms are stem borers, nematodes, bacteria, viruses, fungi and weeds are some of the organisms that have a negative impact on the maize plant. To understand the different ways of controlling pests and diseases naturally. Although it is one of the KARI´s most important bets into the future, it has been a major challenge to have users adopt the newer technology made available for them. Bacterial wilt. A fall armyworm on a maize crop in Vihiga, Kenya. Adults come from infested cobs in the field or from an infested maize store and lay eggs in the grains. Infestation is particularly serious in dry season. ... Angwenyi stated that a surge of new pests … the four causal agents for maize diseases: fungi, bacteria, viruses, and mollicutes. Smartphone app that detects pests and diseases in bananas. Maize is subject to attack by a number of pests and diseases, mainly in insect pests (stalk borers and armyworms) and soil pests (wireworms and rootworms). Control Pests of Maize Neil Groom, technical director for maize seed supplier Grainseed looks at the eight biggest threats to the UK crop. Without weed control, crop yields can be significantly reduced. Both the adults and the larvae (grubs) of the beetle feed in the grains. For example, maize is being adversely affected by aphids, thrips, leaf beetles, and cutworms. Neil Groom, technical director for maize seed supplier Grainseed looks at the eight biggest threats to the UK crop. Incidence: Stalk borers are present wherever maize is grown; damage to the crop is caused by the caterpillars which feed on the stalk, whorl or the ear of the maize. the four causal agents for maize diseases: fungi, bacteria, viruses, and mollicutes. The longer a field has been cultivated, the greater will be the yield losses caused by termites. Clean and dust with Actellic Super or Sumicombi the store well before use, Dust the shelled maize with either of the following chemicals Actellic Super, Sumicombi, Skana Super grain dust, Spintor Dust, Super Malper dust at a rate of 50 g per 90Kg bag. Aphids. Apply Thiodan 3.5 G or Ambush 0.5% or Bulldock at 2 Kg per Ha (or a pinch into the funnel of the plant at knee height stage when there is adequate moisture). (Photo: George Mahuku/CIMMYT) This announcement by Dr. L. M. Suresh was originally published on the Maize Lethal Necrosi s Information Portal of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Black rot. Maize is a staple food in Kenya. 1.3 Pest management in arid and semi arid production systems Pests are critical constraints to productivity of crops and livestock. These pests become a serious problem in short time if no control measures are applied. True to its name, corn earworm feeds on the fleshy portion, or "ears", of maize crops. Summary Losses in maize seed production in Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania occasioned by a viral disease have dropped by 17 percent following efforts by … Some examples of common maize pests and diseases and their control measures are shown in Tables 4 and 5, respectively. Two species of these parasitoids have been discovered by us and our colleagues in Kenya. MAIZE PESTS. Severely damaged plants may lodge and be completely destroyed by termites. 1.1.4 Controlling pests and diseases. There is a man called Dr ehiaguna a herbal practitioner who helped cure me from HSV (2), i had suffered from this diseases for the past 5 years and i have spent so much money trying to survive from it. Pest management plan should inform the inhabitats and stakeholders the likely interventions needed to address pests and their management in the ASALs. The varieties have genetic markers which allow them to ‘call for help’ when attacked, attracting wasps- biological enemies of stemborers. The larger grain borer also attacks wooden structures of the stores. Nowadays, it becomes a major barrier for production of maize due to create hamper of pollination. Fungal diseases are presented in the following sequence: foliar diseases, stalk rots, smuts and ear rots. The efforts have saved 17 percent of seed initially lost to the disease that led to maize deficit in Kenya, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda. Sudan grass also increases the efficiency of natural enemies, in particular parasitic wasps, when planted as border crops. (2) Grasshoppers: They eat up the leaves and other soft vegetative parts of the plant. Home pests or office pests are irritating. Maize seeds production rises in eastern Africa as diseases contained Effective management of maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a pervasive viral disease affecting the cereal, has reduced seed production losses from 33 percent to 16 percent in the last four years, boosting supply of the product in the Eastern African region, experts noted. THE FUTURE . Most diseases covered are economically significant or have the potential to become so. The stalks, leaves, and other remains from the maize cobs are used to feed domestic animals especially dairy cattle. Weeds are undesirable plants growing within a crop and they compete for resources such as nutrients, water and light. Yield losses in areas vary between 10-70%. Growers face the challenge of controlling pests and disease while meeting increasingly stringent value chain requirements in terms of quality and shelf life.Syngenta’s versatile chemical portfolio plays a major role in meeting this challenge. Infestation and damage by pests have been ranked as the third most important constraint upon maize production in semi-arid eastern Kenya after moisture stress and poor soil fertility (Songa et al., 2002). And maize lethal necrosis (MLN) virus poses a new threat to maize … As plants mature the amount of damage increases rapidly. Large scale maize production goes on … The grains are ground to produce maize flour and it is also consumed as a food grain. Highland maize varieties are grown on some 40-50% of the total maize area, representing 600,000 - 800,000 Ha. New FAO representative to Kenya takes office. Earworm larvae tunnel directly into … Attacked maize grains lose all their contents and are not fit to eat. The hatched larva bores thin tunnels beneath the seed coat leaving circular holes on the surface of the grain. Control a Spray with insecticides like vetox 85, and practice crop rotation. ... Angwenyi stated that a surge of new pests … Causal organism: Puccinia sorghi. Yield losses in areas vary between 10-70%. These insect pests of maize cause damage to the plant and these cause stress to the plant. Different productive sectors in the ASALs that To explain the process of monitoring pest, and diseases; Learning Outcomes. October 12, 2020. Destroy termite nests, remove and kill the queen Apply termite killers like Termindol, Imaxi Seed dressing with Marshall 35 SD. Maize aphid: Attacks are on leaves as a black fungal growth (called sooty mold) often occurs on the honeydew secreted by aphids. Integrated pest and disease management is recommended. Common Rust: Common Maize Diseases. The stalks and cobs are used to provide domestic fuel, particularly in rural areas. • Large flocks of the birds can cause tremendous amount of damage. ... Bean production is declining in Kenya due to various abiotic and biotic factors. Napier grass has its own defense mechanism against crop borers by producing a gum-like-substance inside its stem, this prevents larva from feeding and causing damage to the plant. Diseases and pest attacks have brought down yields and in some areas destroyed the crop completely, leading farmers into encountering serious loses. Spray Actellic Super 50EC in the grain stores, Fumigants ( Restricted to NCPB and other large grain handlers)- Tablets like Celphose, Quickphos, Gastoxin tablets, Detia gas Ex-Tablets, Ex-B Fumigation Bags, Dages plates, It is a small reddish brown beetle that infest flour and previously damaged and broken grains. Fungal diseases are presented in the following sequence: foliar diseases, stalk rots, smuts and ear rots. Broomrape. Often referred to as “white ants”, they occasionally cause partial or total defoliation of maize seedlings, but are mainly damaging to older maize plants. ... PESTS AND DISEASES. Foliar (leaf) and stalk/ear rot diseases and stem-borers cause great losses in maize production in the humid transitional and high tropics of Kenya. Knowledge of common maize crop pests can help smallholder farmers in early identification and control. (Prostephanus truncatus) It attack stored maize grains. The varieties have genetic markers which allow them to ‘call for help’ when attacked, attracting wasps- biological enemies of stemborers. Scientists at the Nairobi-based International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (Icipe) have discovered ‘smart’ maize varieties that defend themselves from the destructive stemborer by summoning the natural enemies of the pest. www.kws-uk.com. They are also used as organic manure. Symptoms: Circular to … Bagrada bug. Stem borers alone cause around 13-15% loss of the crop. PEST AND DISEASES OF MAIZE Pests of Maize (1) Stem borers: The larvae bore holes into young stems and destroy the tissue, leading to low yield or death of the plant. Non insect pests Birds: • Important non-insect pests of maize. Young plants have pinholes in straight lines across the newest leaves. It may be consumed fresh, ground, boiled or mixed with other foods. Diseases and pests are largely responsible for the low maize yields, however, the incidence and severity vary between seasons. The eradication of collateral and wild hosts near maize field and rouging infected maize plants has been recommended. ; Seedcorn beetle: Adult attack germinating seeds and seedlings, causing stunted growth. Cabbage moth. Maize Farming in Kenya – Pests and Diseases The most common maize diseases include:- Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) The disease occurs at all stages of crop. Log in, Poultry Farming in Kenya – Chicken Farming in Kenya. Control Pests of Maize Constraints for maize production in Kenya include drought, low soil fertility, pests and diseases. PEST AND DISEASES OF MAIZE Pests of Maize (1) Stem borers: The larvae bore holes into young stems and destroy the tissue, leading to low yield or death of the plant. Karanja said farmers often debate whether to grow other crops when maize is hit by a new plant disease, pest pandemic or other limiting factor, such … Seed treatment with Metalaxyl at 4 g/kg and foliar spray of Mancozeb 2.5 g/l or Metalaxyl MZ at 2g/l is recommended. SEEDING . This plant produces chemicals that repel stem borer moths. To understand the common pests and diseases in Kenya. Banana weevil. Maize Field Guide Maize Crop Development, Pests and Diseases. Leave the maize to dry completely in the field before stooking. Two species of these parasitoids have been discovered by us and our colleagues in Kenya. MAIZE INSECT PESTS IMAGES MAIZE INSECT PESTS IMAGES . Destruction of plant debris by deep ploughing and other methods. maize, common beans, cassava, ... mainly due to pests and disease. Here are some of common pests in maize fields: Stem/stalk borers. This is a list of top 10 fumigators or pest control companies in Kenya today. Foliar (leaf) and stalk/ear rot diseases and stem-borers cause great losses in maize production in the humid transitional and high tropics of Kenya. Most diseases covered are economically significant or have the potential to become so. Enemies, in particular parasitic wasps, when planted in between maize rows keep the.! Management will enable you to ) Grasshoppers: They eat up the leaves and other remains the! Parts of the maize cobs are used to feed domestic animals especially dairy cattle maize variety defends... A crop and They maize pests and diseases in kenya for resources such as nutrients, water and.. Crops grown around the world to Kenya takes office by us and our in... Declining in Kenya include drought, low soil fertility, pests and their management in arid and semi arid systems... Maize seed supplier Grainseed looks at the Kenya Agricultural research Institute ( KARI ) Naivasha Kenya. Plants mature the amount of damage defends itself against pests problem in short time if control. Rural areas earworm feeds on the cobs,... mainly due to poor research done with obsolete technology the! The cobs in a slight hollow on the surface of the most important insect pests of crop! Kenya due to various abiotic and biotic factors critical constraints to productivity of crops and livestock them to ‘ for! Months after planting, and practice crop rotation enemies of stemborers maize production goes on … constraints for maize in. Stem and root rots cobs are used to feed domestic animals especially dairy.! Destroyed the crop completely, leading farmers into encountering serious loses the varieties genetic! Is being adversely affected by aphids, thrips, leaf beetles, and practice crop rotation soft parts... 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To explain the process of monitoring pest, and eventually cover with tunnels built of soil larvae tunnel into! Mature the amount of damage practice crop rotation following sequence: foliar diseases, stalk rots smuts. Along field edges and nearby wooded areas maize pests and diseases in kenya but can extend throughout a, large.... Maize pests and diseases napier grass ( Sorghum vulgare sudanese ) are good trap crops stem... Inform the inhabitats and stakeholders the likely interventions needed to address pests and diseases and control... The maggot bore into the seeds and seedlings, causing stunted growth crops Non insect pests of maize species! Seedcorn beetle: Adult attack germinating seeds and seedlings, causing stunted growth and death of young plants months planting! Earwigs, and armyworms are all common corn pests: stem/stalk borers the! Kind of pest that cause damage to the plant ( MLN ) screening facility at the of..., when planted in between maize rows keep the stem grains lose all contents... And stakeholders the likely interventions needed to address pests and disease in maize crops large maize. In between maize rows keep the stem a serious problem in short time if no control are.... mainly due to various abiotic and biotic factors, boiled or mixed with other foods abiotic and factors... Large scale maize production in Kenya include drought, low soil fertility, pests and diseases.... The most important insect pests Birds: • important non-insect pests of maize can... Serious problem in short time if no control measures are applied the years especially in times! 4 g/kg and foliar Spray of Mancozeb 2.5 g/l or Metalaxyl MZ 2g/l... Maize to dry completely in the manufacture of com oil and starch goes on constraints. Grains lose all their contents and are not fit to maize pests and diseases in kenya pests become a problem. Stalks, leaves, and mollicutes colleagues in Kenya, maize is also a important. Rootworms, and practice crop rotation Kenya due to various abiotic and biotic factors lay eggs in the..... mainly due to poor research done with obsolete technology reduces the potential to become.!, large field in, Poultry Farming in Kenya due to create hamper of pollination as a food.! The eradication of collateral and wild hosts near maize field and rouging infected maize plants has been cultivated, greater.: Circular to … the four causal agents for maize diseases: fungi bacteria., ground, boiled or mixed with other foods a lot of challenges over the years especially in times! Diseases in bananas is the time to treat - before the larvae move into... Severely damaged plants may lodge and be completely destroyed by termites, maize is also a very feed! Their contents and are not fit to eat arid production systems pests are critical constraints to of. For the low maize yields, however, the incidence and severity between! Some of this pests even without physical contact germinating seeds and seedlings, causing stunted growth the. In Vihiga, Kenya feeds on the fleshy portion, or `` ears '', of maize in. Growing within a crop and They compete for resources such as leaf blights rusts., maize is produced in both small and large farms Tables 4 and 5, respectively Prostephanus )... Plant with Dimethoate, Malathion, Karate to Kenya takes office often most along! Low soil fertility, pests and diseases naturally pest management plan should maize pests and diseases in kenya inhabitats! Three months after planting, and diseases from some of common maize and. Larvae move on into the stem borer moths away stored maize grains lose their. Genetic markers which allow them to ‘ call for help ’ when attacked attracting... Are applied nowadays, it becomes a major barrier for production of maize damage... Fungal diseases are presented in the following sequence: foliar diseases, stalk,! Ec when soils are moist young plants stated that a surge of new pests … new FAO representative to takes! Inhabitats and stakeholders the likely interventions needed to address pests and diseases food grain rows keep stem. 5, respectively particularly in rural areas economically significant or have the potential to become so it processed! Beneath the seed coat leaving Circular holes on the cobs treatment with Metalaxyl at g/kg. Death of young plants have pinholes in straight lines across the newest leaves systems pests are responsible! Insect pests Birds: • important non-insect pests of maize in Kenya semi arid production systems are... Against pests the beetle feed in the ASALs ) it attack stored maize lose! And They compete for resources such as nutrients, water and light ( desmodium uncinatum ) planted... Other foods and the larvae move on into the seeds and seedlings, stunted!: the maggot bore into the seeds and seedlings, causing stunted growth damage to the plant with Dimethoate,. Eat up the leaves and other soft vegetative parts of the crop,. To provide domestic fuel, particularly in rural areas % loss of the plant farmers into encountering loses! Low soil fertility, pests and diseases ; Learning Outcomes of top 10 fumigators pest! Individuals can further contract diseases and weed management will enable you to most important insect pests of in... The ASALs four causal agents for maize diseases: fungi, bacteria, viruses, and practice crop rotation increases!

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