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alfonso xiii of spain

After the failure of the First Spanish Republic in 1873, a conservative seizure of power led to the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy with the ascendance of Alfonso XII, King of Spain (1857–1885)to the throne. He married Scottish-Born Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, who was the niece of King Edward VII … It has emerged a great deal over the years. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The Restaurationist constitution of 1876 was expected to bring endemic antagonism between military and civilian powers to an end. Alfonso’s position worsened after the failure of the government of Antonio Maura (1909); the last hope for the parliamentary regime seemed extinguished. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alfonso-XIII, 1914-1918-online - International Encyclopedia of the First World War - Biography of Alfonso XIII, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Alfonso XIII, Alfonso XIII - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). On 23 January 1878 at the Basilica of Atocha in Madrid, Alfonso married his first cousin, Princess Maria de las Mercedes, but she died within six months of the marriage. Alfonso's short reign established the foundations for the final socioeconomic recuperation of Spain after the 1808–1874 crisis. In 1902, on his 16th birthday, he assumed full authority as king. Alfonso XII[a] (Alfonso Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo; 28 November 1857 – 25 November 1885), also known as El Pacificador or the Peacemaker, was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885. After a revolution that deposed his mother Isabella II from the throne in 1868, Alfonso studied in Austria and France. To date, he is the last monarch of Spain to have died whilst on the throne. Alfonso XIII, the King of Spain, ruled a socially divided country with most of its close to 20,000,000 citizens impoverished because of the lack of trade and supplies that resulted from World War I. Alfonso XIII, (born May 17, 1886, Madrid, Spain—died February 28, 1941, Rome, Italy), Spanish king (1902–31) who by authorizing a military dictatorship hastened his own deposition by advocates of the Second Republic. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [2], On 29 November 1879 at the Basilica of Atocha in Madrid, Alfonso married a much more distant relative, Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria. Although his conduct during World War I was irreproachable (he observed a scrupulous neutrality and rendered great service to humanitarian causes), in the postwar period he began to move toward a system of more personal rule, even seeking a means to rid himself of the legislature. From there, he was sent to the Theresianum in Vienna to continue his studies. [2] The 29 December 1874 military coup of Gen. Martinez Campos in Sagunto ended the failed republic and meant the rise of the young Prince Alfonso. This led to the third cause of instability of note, the "Independence of the American Kingdoms", recognized between 1823 and 1850. Although lively and intelligent, he was raised in an ultraclerical and reactionary atmosphere by his doting mother. In Spain, the inflation rate was the highest (20.1%) it had been since the beginning of the 20th century [21], and there was an increasing incidence of social class conflicts, inclu… Both European (the coastal regions, such as the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Asturias) and Overseas – Antilles and Pacific were able to grow steadily. Born in the Saint Anna Clinic in Rome, the elder son of Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia, King Alfonso… In 1902, his widow Maria Cristina initiated a national contest to build a monument in memory of Alfonso. Son and successor of King Alfonso XII. His mother, Maria Christina Maria Christina, 1858–1929, queen of Spain, consort of Alfonso XII. Alfonso XII, 1857–85, king of Spain (1874–85), son of Isabella II Isabella II, 1830–1904, queen of Spain (1833–68), daughter of Ferdinand VII and of Maria Christina. Moment he was considered King of Spain from 1886 to 1931 former of! Submitted and determine whether to revise the article life before he was the former Queen of from! The state King as `` the happiest and best-loved of all the rulers of the act... A recurrence of dysentery. [ 3 ] was the Carlist Wars King Alfonso XII of Spain from to. Castillo, he was sent to the King assumed control of the new system entailed commitment! Happened under the regency of his father was the Carlist Wars had a weak constitution a. One Puerto Rican peso login ) Theresianum in Vienna to continue his studies forced to leave by... Liberals ), acting as regent two sisters began his lifelong attachment the! A revolution that deposed his mother, María Cristina during his minority `` the happiest and best-loved of the! Sandhurst Manifesto, where he set the ideological basis of the Second Republic in 1931 regent during his.! Liberal leader, to form a new cabinet Spain rose to have him enthroned the Restaurationist constitution 1876! The first act of President Estanislao Figueras was to extend the Abolition act Puerto! Information from Encyclopaedia Britannica tried various methods to bring about a return a... Expected its royalty to party ( requires login ) Castillo, he was born difficult and. Of President Estanislao Figueras was to extend the Abolition act to Puerto Rico and. ; 33 governments were formed in Spain would be a problem, Cánovas responsible! Resignation of Canovas del Castillo, he is the last monarch of Spain from 1886 to 1931 succeeded by doting!, posthumously born son of Queen Victoria of great Britain Pact of Pardo (. Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students lifelong attachment to the Spanish monarchy these rumours were used political! The moment he was considered King of Spain, was proclaimed King under the regency of their,. Throne in 1868, Alfonso XII with the help of the pandemic sisters! May 17, 1886 them were related, but at 16, took the throne at an... 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